Laws are to be upheld except in rare cases when they are inconsistent with such duties. Statements of fact are proven, certain.
According to Kohlberg this level of moral reasoning is as far as most people get. We cannot rely upon them. He found that these reasons tended to change as the children got older.
However, it is possible for individuals to defend their actions with different types of moral reasoning, even in the face of participating in hurtful or detrimental behavior. Maintaining the Social Order. Obedience and Punishment Orientation. Student Relativism A second view, often found among college students after they have been exposed in humanities courses to the fact that plausible reasons can often be given for opposing viewpoints, has been labeled "Student Relativism.
What Kohlberg was mainly interested in was not whether the boys judged the action right or wrong, but the reasons given for the decision.
In practice, it seems that reasoning about right and wrong depends more upon the situation than upon general rules. However, Bee suggests that we also need to take account of: Authority is outside the individual and reasoning is based on the physical consequences of actions.
Doctors said a new drug might save her. That is to say, most people take Cognitive moral development theories essay moral views from those around them and only a minority think through ethical principles for themselves.
Level 3 - Post-conventional morality Individual judgment is based on self-chosen principles, and moral reasoning is based on individual rights and justice. She is well known for having argued that girls and women tend to develop along a somewhat different path, although similarities between her account of female moral development and male moral development are not hard to discover.
They do things that provide them satisfaction and sense of self-worth. Gilligan was a student of Kohlberg and later became critical of some of his generalizations. Stage theories[ edit ] Theories grounded in the belief that different types of moral thinking appears in a sequence, from one way of thinking to another, invariantly, are considered stage theories.
Among such competing views, all positions are equally correct. Indeed, it may be a fact that the professor does think one of the two views is superior, but what he or she is trying to convey is how the advocates of the two views make their case.
Heinz could only raise half the money, even after help from family and friends. Kohlberg never claimed that there would be a one to one correspondence between thinking and acting what we say and what we do but he does suggest that the two are linked. Statements of opinion are merely opinion, what someone believes.
Furthermore, Kohlberg claims that the moral reasoning of males has been often in advance of that of females. We can rely on them. On this approach, knowledge as justified true opinion would be impossible.
If, as seems plausible, knowledge is justified true opinion, then what we know is part of what we have opinions about. In this self-regulatory process, people monitor their conduct and the conditions under which it occurs, judge it in relation to moral standards, and regulate their actions by the consequences they apply to themselves.
By studying the answers from children of different ages to these questions, Kohlberg hoped to discover how moral reasoning changed as people grew older. People can only pass through these levels in the order listed.
Further, the gender bias issue raised by Gilligan is a reminded of the significant gender debate still present in psychology, which when ignored, can have a large impact on the results obtained through psychological research.
They often refrain from engaging in ways that violate their moral standards in order to avoid self-condemnation. The dilemmas are artificial i. How should they know whether Heinz should steal the drug? We can say that some opinions correspond to facts.
The dilemmas are hypothetical i. Developmental psychologists Lawrence Kohlberg and Carol Gilligan do not agree about everything, but they do agree about the following important points: Behavior itself can produce two sets of consequences, "self evaluative reactions and social effects"  and these two consequences can be complementary or opposing influences on the behavior of an individual.
The evidence for distinct stages of moral development looks very weak, and some would argue that behind the theory is a culturally biased belief in the superiority of American values over those of other cultures and societies.
Level 2 - Conventional morality At the conventional level most adolescents and adultswe begin to internalize the moral standards of valued adult role models. Is justice the most fundamental moral principle?
The principles apply to everyone.Theories of Cognitive and Moral Development. Contact: Dr. Jan Garrett This page revised August 22, Contents.
Cognitive Development. 1. Fact. The social cognitive theory of morality attempts to explain how moral thinking, Both Kohlberg and Piaget's theories about the development of moral reasoning argue that development occurs in stages and that less complex reasoning strategies from lower stages are abandoned in favor of the more complex strategies from the next.
In. Lawrence Kohlberg () agreed with Piaget's () theory of moral development in principle but wanted to develop his ideas further. He used Piaget’s storytelling technique to tell people stories involving moral dilemmas. Research on the Cognitive & Moral Development Theories of Jean Piaget & Lawrence Kohlberg More about The Theories of Piaget and Kohlberg Essay.
Jean Piagets Theory Words | 5 Pages; Critical Review of the Moral, Cognitive, Social and Personality Developmental Stages of Michael Oher in the Movie "Blindside".
Use the Kohlberg. The Relationship Between Cognitive and Moral Development Essay Words 15 Pages Many researchers have written about child development, but the most well known are Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg. Specifically, the paper will speak to the definition of moral development, the views held by educators Piaget and Kohlberg on this area of development in young children and the application of moral development theories by Early Childhood Educators.Download